Located on the transit point connecting Asian and European continents, Turkey is amongst the leading touristic destinations in the world with the historical artifacts handed down by various civilizations and its unique natural beauties.
Name : Republic of Turkey
Form of Government : Democracy
Capital : Ankara
Official language : Turkish
Surface area : 780.580 km2
Population : 78.665.830
Republic of Turkey is a country in the northern hemisphere, connecting European and Asian continents. The country is surrounded by the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Marmara and the Aegean Sea. Its neighbors are Greece and Bulgaria on the European continent, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq and Syria on Asia Minor.
Situated on the crossroads between Asian, European and African continents, Turkey has a strong air and marine transport network. The historical Silk Road passes through the boundaries of the country which has a massive road network.
Due to its geographical location, Turkey is under the influence of more than one type of climate. The Mediterranean and Aegean coasts enjoy the Mediterranean climate with hot summers and warm and rainy winters, whereas northern coasts have Black Sea climate with summers less hot and winters cooler and rainier compared to the southern Mediterranean coasts. The inland regions of the country experience the continental climate, characterized by long, cold and snowy winters and very hot summers.
SOME OF THE ORGANIZATIONS TURKEY IS A MEMBER TO
United Nations, European Council, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), World Trade Organization (WTO), Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 after the victory of the War of Independence as a continuation of the Ottoman Empire, which was defeated in World War I and its territory was shared by the countries that won the war. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his brothers in arms; Kuvayı Milliye, the people’s resistance composed of the national forces, militias and volunteers who demanded independence from the countries that besieged the territory of the Ottoman Empire won the war. The countries that lost the war left Anatolian territory. After the war ended, a new country called Turkey was founded in place of the Ottoman Empire on 1923. The type of government was determined as republic and the center of government was determined as the Turkish Grand National Assembly. The capital became Ankara. The founding president of the country was Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who had led the War of Independence.
Republic of Turkey is a country where different religions exist and religious faiths are enshrined in the country’s constitution. More than 98% of the population are members of the religion of Islam. There are also Christian and Jewish citizens.
THE DEAD SEA : The Dead Sea located within the boundaries of Muğla province, Fethiye district was elected as the best beach in the world in 2006. It has the characteristics of a still lake..
ALAÇATI : One of the most significant holiday destinations in the Aegean Region, Alaçatı is located in İzmir. Alaçatı is remarkable for its stone houses, and it also has beaches that give you the opportunity to surf.
THE BLUE MOSQUE: The building of the mosque was commissioned by Sultan Ahmed I in the Sultanahmet Neighborhood in the Ottoman Empire period. Its architect was Sedefkar Mehmet Aga. The Mosque is hailed as one of the most important religious buildings reflecting Turco-Islamic architecture.
TOPKAPI PALACE: It is the oldest known palace in the world. Its construction was initiated in 1465, and after it was completed, it stood as the government center of the Ottoman Empire for 400 years. It is the most popular tourist destination in Istanbul.
GALATA TOWER: A historic tower in the Galata neighborhood of Istanbul. It was build by the Genoese for defense purposes in addition to Galata Walls. Built in 1348, Galata Tower is 77 meters high. The wall thickness of the Tower is 3.75 meters.
YEREBATAN PALACE (BASILICA CISTERN): Basilica Cistern is one of the spectacular historical buildings in Istanbul. Its construction was commissioned by the Byzantine Emperor Justinianus I. It is also called ‘the Sunken Cistern’ amongst the people due to the marble pillars rising from water and seems like they are infinite in number. The cistern is an enormous structure covering a rectangular area 140 meters long and 70 meters wide.
HAGIA SOPHIA MUSEUM: It is amongst the leading monuments of the world architecture history that has survived to date. It is located in Istanbul. It was built as a church during the East Roman Empire period and it was constructed on the same site for three times. It was converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of Istanbul. It was turned into a museum and opened to visitors in 1935 after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.
THE MAIDEN TOWER: Mentioned in many legends, the Maiden Tower has been used as a watch tower and a lighthouse in the past. Constructed on a little island located off the shore of Salacak in Üsküdar, Istanbul is visited by huge groups of tourists every year.
THE TROJAN HORSE: It is located in Çanakkale. It is the symbol of the Trojan War. This wooden horse visited today was built in 1975.
CAPPADOCIA: Located in inner Anatolia, Cappadocia is today characterized as an ancient and touristic region. Ihlara Valley, Ürgüp, Göreme, Avanos, Üçhisar, Ortahisar regions are flooded with tourists.
PAMUKKALE : Pamukkale, which is made up of the cotton-white stones created as result of the sedimentation of calcified hot water is located in Denizli. It is the best known natural beauty in Turkey.
HIERAPOLIS : Ancient city of Hierapolis, located at 18 km distance from Denizli province, is named as the holy city in archeological literature. The reason for this denomination is the existence of a number of temples and other religious structures in the city.
ZEUGMA MOSAIC MUSEUM: Ancient City of Zeugma was founded in 300 B.C. by Alexander the Great. The Zeugma Mosaic Museum in Gaziantep is one of the most important museums across the world thanks to its structural complex and the artifacts it houses.
ISHAK PASHA PALACE: Ishak Pasha Palace that reflects the traces of 18th century Ottoman Architecture is located in Doğubeyazıt district. The structure, which is build on a hill on the slopes of a mountain is beyond a palace, it is a compound.
SAFRANBOLU HOUSES: Safranbolu houses located in Safranbolu district of Karabük province reflect the 18th and 19th century Ottoman urban life and still retain their historical fabric today,. The houses are 2 or 3- storied, made of timber framing with mud brick infill, with whitewashed walls.
MEVLANA MUSEUM: The structure that is currently used as a museum today was actually a dervish lodge of Mevlana. It was the living space of Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi and the dervishes.
SUMELA MONASTERY: Located in Trabzon, Sumela Monastery is situated on a 1150 meter altitude above sea level. The full name oft he Greek monastery and church complex is Theotokos Sumela.
WHAT TO EAT AND AND DRINK
Republic of Turkey, a continuation of the Ottoman Empire in terms of the historical past, has a very large and rich cuisine. Amongst the most popular dishes in Turkish cuisine are Adana-Urfa kebab, sultan’s delight, stuffed vine leaves, Iskender, doner, cag kebab, manti (ravioli), white beans, icli kofte (kibbeh), karnıyarık (split eggplants with minced meat filling) sac kavurma (braised lamb on wok) alinazik kebab, and cacik. In addition, baklavas, kunefe, Turkish delight are featured deserts. And Turkish coffee, Turkish tea, ayran as well as sherbets, compote, and dried fruit compote are preferred.